Monday, November 30, 2009


  1. The Village By The Sea (1982) is a novel written by the popular Indian American writer Anita Desai. It is based on the poverty, hardships and sorrow faced by a small rural community in India.The novel was the basis for the 1991 television series of the same name starring Saeed Jaffrey.It was screened on BBC 1 on Sunday afternoons.
  2. Anita Mazumdar Desai  is an Indian novelist and Emeritus John E. Burchard Professor of Humanities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has been shortlisted for the Booker prize three times. Her daughter, the author Kiran Desai, won the 2006 Booker prize.
  3. Kiran Desai  is an Indian author who is a citizen of India and a permanent resident of the United States. Her novel The Inheritance of Loss won the 2006 Man Booker Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Fiction Award. She is the daughter of the noted author Anita Desai.
  4. Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist. He achieved notability with his second novel, Midnight's Children (1981), which won the Booker Prize in 1981. His fourth novel, The Satanic Verses (1988), was the center of The Satanic Verses controversy, with protests from Muslims in several countries. Some of the protests were violent, with Rushdie facing death threats and a fatwā issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran, in February 1989.
  5. After Midnight's Children, Rushdie wrote Shame (1983), in which he depicts the political turmoil in Pakistan, basing his characters on Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Shame won France's Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger (Best Foreign Book) and was a close runner-up for the Booker Prize.


  1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a founder (with Dwarkanath Tagore and other Bengali Brahmins) of the Brahma Sabha in 1828 which engendered the Brahmo Samaj, an influential Indian socio-religious reform movement. His influence was apparent in the fields of politics, public administration and education as well as religion. He is best known for his efforts to abolish the practice of sati, the Hindu funeral practice in which the widow was compelled to sacrifice herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. It was he who first introduced the word "Hinduism" into the English language in 1816. For his diverse contributions to society, Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as one of the most important figures in the Bengal Renaissance. His efforts to protect Hinduism and Indian rights by participating in British government earned him the title “The Father of the Bengal Renaissance” or “The Father of the Indian Nation.”
  2. Dwarkanath Tagore (1794-1846), was one of the earliest entrepreneurs from India, and founder of the Jorasanko branch of the Tagore family, and is notable for making substantial contributions to the Bengal Renaissance.
  3. Debendranath Tagore (Debendronath Ţhakur) was the founder in 1848 of the Brahmo Religion which today is synonymous with Brahmoism the youngest religion of India and Bangladesh.
  4. Satyendranath Tagore was the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Service. He was an author, song composer, linguist and made significant contribution towards the emancipation of women in Indian society during the British Raj.
  5. Rabindranath Tagore  sobriquet Gurudev was a Bengali polymath. As a poet, novelist, musician, and playwright, he reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature
  6. Tagore penned the anthems of Bangladesh and India: Amar Shonar Bangla and Jana Gana Mana.
  7. Michael Madhusudan Dutt (Datta), born Madhusudan Dutt, is a famous 19th century Bengali poet and dramatist.  He was a pioneer of Bengali drama. His famous work Meghnadh Badh Kabya (Bengali: মেঘনাদবধ কাব্য), is a tragic epic. It consists of nine cantos and is quite exceptional in Bengali literature both in terms of style and content. He also wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women.
  8. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was a Bengali poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram, that inspired the freedom fighters of India, and was later declared the National Song of India.Kapalkundala (1866) is Chatterjee's first major publication.
  9. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar , was a Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal RenaissanceVidyasagar reconstructed the Bengali alphabet and reformed Bengali typography into an alphabet (actually abugida) of twelve vowels and forty consonants.
    Vidyasagar contributed significantly to Bengali and Sanskrit literature.
  10. Vidyasagar was one of the first persons in India to realize that modern science was the key to India's future. He translated into Bengali the English biographies of some outstanding scientists like Copernicus, Newton, and Herschel. He sought to inculcate a spirit of scientific inquiry into young Bengalis. A staunch anti-Berkeleyan, he emphasized the importance of studying European Empiricist philosophy (of Francis Bacon) and the inductive logic of John Stuart Mill.


  1. Saharanpur is internationally famous for its wood carving work cottage industry. It is a thriving market of local agricultural produce, including basmati rice and mangoes. A variety of agro-based industrial enterprises - such as textiles, sugar, paper and cigarette factories - are located in it.
  2. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter.
  3. The International Mobile Equipment Identity or IMEI (pronounced /aɪˈmiː/) is a number unique to every GSM and WCDMA and iDEN mobile phone, as well as some satellite phones.
  4. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard.
  5. Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card
  6. Invention by Lee De Forest of the triode.
  7. Analogue electronics (or analog in American English) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. In contrast, in digital electronics signals usually take only two different levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal.
  8. Digital electronics are systems that represent signals as discrete levels, rather than as a continuous range. 
  9. electric potential (also called the "electrostatic potential") is potential energy divided by charge that is associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field. It is a scalar quantity, typically measured in volts.
  10. Potential energy is energy stored within a physical system as a result of the position or configuration of the different parts of that system. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, and to do work in the process. The SI unit of measure for energy (including potential energy) and work is the joule (symbol J).

Daily Dose (Miscellaneous)

  1. James Bowthorpe ventured out on his 18,000-mile bike ride through 20 countries, the cabinet-maker from south London is set to become the fastest man to cycle round the globe.
  2. The Right to Information act is a law enacted by the Parliament of India giving citizens of India access to records of the Central Government and State Governments. The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir - which is covered under a State-level law.This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 13 October 2005 . Information disclosure in India was hitherto restricted by the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act now relaxes.
  3. The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme legislative body of India. It consists of the office of President of India and two houses, the lower house, known as the Lok Sabha and the upper house, known as the Rajya Sabha.. It is located in New Delhi at Sansad Bhavan on Sansad Marg.
  4. A federal government is the common government of a federation.
  5. federal state, is a type of sovereign state characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the central government.
  6. A sovereign state, commonly simply referred to as a state, is a political association with effective internal and external sovereignty over a geographic area and population which is not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state. 
  7. Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory. 
  8. The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment) is a term used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life, centred upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
  9. Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western or Occidental world, as distinct from Eastern or Oriental philosophies and the varieties of indigenous philosophies.
  10. During the Cold War, a new definition emerged. The Earth was divided into three "worlds". The First World, analogous in this context to what was called the West, was composed of NATO members and other countries aligned with the United States. The Second World was the Eastern bloc in the Soviet sphere of influence, including the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. It included some Central European countries (like The German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland) which had a Western type culture.The Third World consisted of countries unaligned with either, and important members included India and Yugoslavia; some include the People's Republic of China, though this is disputed,as the People's Republic of China was communist, had friendly relations—at certain times—with the Soviet bloc, and had a significant degree of importance in global geopolitics.

Sunday, November 29, 2009


  1. The core sector accounts for 26.7 per cent of the Index of Industrial Production and ... The six core infrastructure industries -- crude oil, petroleum refinery products, ... petroleum refinery products, coal, electricity, cement and finished carbon steel.
  2. Expressing pressure as the height of a column of mercury stems from the mercury barometer, which was invented by the ltalian scientist EvangelistaTorricelli in 1643, and is still use today. A glass tube with a sealed end is filled with mercury and then up ended in a bowl of mercury.The mercury will sink in the tube until the weight of mercury in the tube is balanced by the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the surface of the bowl of mercury.
  3. In 1776, the first naval battle of the Revolutionary War was fought just off Grand View's riverbanks. George Washington and his army traversed the area many times during the war; their headquarters were in the nearby village of Tappan. During the 18th and 19th centuries, brown sandstone was quarried in the village, and many of the brownstones in New York City, including City Hall and Trinity Church, were built with that material.
  4.  America's first president, George Washington, took this oath in New York City on April 30, 1789.
  5. Mahangar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL), a full service telecoms provider and...generation communications services in India. MTNL, which was set up on April 1st, 1986...accounts.
  6. May 23, 2009 - Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited launched third generation (3G) mobile service in Mumbai. The 3G service would enable customers to make video calls, view LIVE TV channels on their mobiles, download data from internet at speeds upto 2 mbps and songs ...
  7. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India came into being  with Justice SS Sodhi as its chairman. The other two members are BK Zutshi, as vice-chairperson and NS Ramachandran as member.(1999)
  8. J S Raju, the chief of National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) 
  9. Responsibility for supervising the Indian telecommunications sector is divided between the. Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and the Telecom Commission. 
  10.  The construction of thE  Jami Masjid (Friday Mosque), started in the in 1193 CE, when Aibak was the commander of Muhammad Ghori's garrison occupied Delhi.


  1. The UNESCO has welcomed the tabling of National Commission for Heritage Sites Bill 2009 in the Rajya Sabha. The Bill, tabled in the last Parliament session, seeks to create a national commission, having a holistic view of protection and preserv ation of heritage sites.
  2. On May 21, 1991, Rajiv Gandhi was killed in Sriperumbudur in Tamil Nadu by a suicide bomber. Sonia resisted Congress attempts to persuade her to step into Rajiv`s shoes and eschewed politics for some years. 
  3. Mother Teresa,  won the Nobel Prize in April 1985.
  4. Mother Teresa was born on August 27, 1910, in Skopje, Yugoslavia (known today as Skopje, Macedonia). Her parents were Nikola and Dronda Bojaxhiu. She was known as the friend to the friendless or sister to the poor. Mother Teresa's real name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, but as a nun she changed her name of course to Mother Teresa. Mother Teresa was a Roman nun.
  5. Mother Teresa, born on 29th August, 1910, was the foundress of Missionaries of Charity.
  6. Yasser Arafat was born Mohammed Yasser Abdul- Ra'ouf Qudwa Al-Husseini on August 24, 1929. Though he became the symbol of the Palestinian cause, he was not a Palestinian. His birthplace was actually Cairo, Egypt. Arafat ls Born The Syrians, who were increasingly at odds with Nasser, decided to support a rival Palestinian faction and began recruiting agents from refugee camps in Lebanon. A group calling themselves the Movement for the Liberation of Palestine
  7. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, the country's premier container port, even as the port is continuously breaking new grounds in cargo handling. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) handled 4.06 million TEUs of containers during the financial year 2007-08 .
  8. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) handled 4.06 million TEUs of containers during the financial year 2007-08 . ... "With 24% growth JNPT is the third port in the world after two Chinese ports to record highest growths in cargo handling," said SS Hussain, chairman of the Port Trust.
  9. The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (IIMC) was established in the year 1961. The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (IIMC) was established as the first national institute for Post-Graduate studies and Research in Management by the Government of India. The vision of the Institute is to emerge as an International Centre of Excellence in all facets of Management Education, rooted in Indian ethos and societal values.
  10. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee is a premier institution of engineering and technology in India. The first engineering institution set up in India in 1847, IIT Roorkee has acquired a world-wide reputation of being among the foremost centres of excellence.


  1. July 16, 1945, a couple of months after Nazi Germany surrendered, the first atomic device (called “The Gadget”) was hauled up a hundred feet above the ground on a steel tower, 230 miles south of Los Alamos, in the New Mexico desert (the Trinity test). As the announcer shouted “Now”, a blinding white flash illuminated the still-dark skies, a light so intense that resident of a distant neighbouring community would swear that the sun rose twice that day.
  2. Many foreign philosophers have fallen in love with Bhagavad Gita from time to time. Way back in 1785, Charles Wilkins published an English translation of the Bhagavad Gita. It was praised by Wilhelm Von Humboldt as “the most beautiful, perhaps the only true philosophical song existing in any known tongue.” Christopher Isherwood and TS Elliot too have appreciated this book.
  3.  Charles Wilkins (1749-1836) was an Orientalist, founder member of the Asiatic Society in Kolkata and the inventor of modern Bangla and Persian printing typefaces. Charles Wilkins joined the East India Company in 1770 as a writer. He is the first Britishman to develop interest in Orientalism and learn Sanskrit thoroughly.
  4. China has blamed New Delhi for trying to provoke Beijing by orchestrating Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama's controversial visit to Arunachal Pradesh, India has rubbished the allegation.
  5.  Arunachal Pradesh has attained statehood on 20th February, 1987. But 20 years has not been enough for the state to leave its mark in the national business scenario.
  6.  SENET is an intranet project launched by the Office of the Development Commissioner (MSME ) in April 1997 and is a small enterprise information resource center network. ( Small enterprise mans small-scale industries and small-scale services and business activities). SENET Objectives are: To Create - an electronic intranet for small enterprises - databases for small enterprise To Provide - technical know-how and package assistance to small information servers - Training 
  7. 1914 - In the East, the Russians surprised the German General Staff by mobilizing faster than the Germans anticipated, and invaded East Prussia with two massive armies. Only the diversion of troops scheduled for the Western Front halted the Russian offensive. General Paul von Hindenburg and his adjutant, General Erich von Ludendorff, won a stunning victory over the Russians at the Battle of Tannenburg in August 1914. This ended the Russian threat to East Prussia .
  8. 1812 - the Battle of Borodino Russian: Borodinskaja bitva, French: Bataille de la Moskowa, fought on September 7, 1812, was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but it failed to destroy the Russian army.
  9. As part of an effort to improve environmental quality and to increase environmental awareness among industries and consumers, the Indian Parliament initiated a voluntary ecolabeling program known as the Ecomark in February 1991. The Ecomark is a government operated seal-of-approval program for enviromentally-preferable consumer products. The Ministry of Environment of Forests (MoEF), with the technical advice of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), manages the program.
  10. Ecomark, `the greening of consumer choice', was launched by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF) in 1992. The matka (earthen pot) was to be the symbol of choice for eco-friendly every-day products. Seven futile years later, there is not a single genuine ecolabel on the retail.


  1. Father of Green Revolution and chairman of National Commission on Farmers MS Swaminathan.
  2. On November 1, 1956, Andhra State merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, became the capital of the new state Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Yousuf Hussain Khan was one of the five delegates who went to New York to argue for the independence of Nizam's Hyderabad state in the UN in September 1948. Upon his return from the unfinished job, Khan, a historian and litterateur at OU, and the brother of Zakir Hussain, the former president, returned to his alma matar. But he soon quit his job and went to Aligarh where he later became the pro vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University.
  4. Akbar appointed prince Murad governor of Malwa in 1582. In the following year the prince was also made governor of Gujarat; and the former governor Mirza Khan, was despatched with an army under prince Daniyal for the invasion of the Dakhan. Owing to disputes prince Daniyal was recalled; and the command devolved on Mirza Khan, who cantoned in Malwa, intending to invade the Dakhan after the rains were over.
  5. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri with President Mohammad Ayub Khan of Pakistan and Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin in Tashkent on January 10, 1966. Shastri died in Tashkent the next day.
  6. SHASTRI was deeply patriotic and courageous, having dedicated his life to the service of the nation. His commitment to the people of India was exemplary. Lal Bahadur Shastri was born in a poor family on October 2, 1904 and through his grit, determination and honesty he rose to the high position of Prime Minister of India. A firm believer in the social responsibilities of business enterprises, he looked at the economic and social realities of Indian life with a clear vision.
  7. October 31, 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards. Riots erupted in New Delhi.
  8.  Indira Gandhi was sworn in India's first woman Prime Minister on January 24, 1966. 
  9. Baitullah Mehsud, unlike other militant leaders, made the Pakistan government his target, using suicide attacks and assassinations to shake the foundations of ... For the most part, Mehsud's operations were focused in Pakistan. As a result, for Pakistan, Mehsud was the biggest threat. ...
  10.  A court in northwest Pakistan (1 NOV 09) directed police to declare former President Pervez Musharraf a "proclaimed offender" and confiscate his property if he failed to cooperate with the probe into the whereabouts of a man allegedly detained by security agencies ...


  1. The 10th century Tabo monastery houses more than 60 Lamas, large number of scriptures and art treasure like stucco wall paintings. Built in the year 996 AD, Tabo monastery is the oldest and archeologically most important monastery of Spiti. The wall-frescoes of the monastery are said to be comparable in their antiquity and quality to those of Ajanta Caves. Hence, Tabo is known as the Ajanta of the Himalayas.
  2. The TABO monastery was founded by the great scholar, Richen Zangpo, in the year 960 AD. Tabo Gompa, located in India, was meant to serve as an institution for advanced learning
  3. The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. It is the world's largest delta, and empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is also one of the most fertile regions in the world, thus earning the nickname The Green Delta. The delta, also known as the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, stretches from the Hooghly River on the west to the Meghna River on the east. It is approximately 350 km (220 mi) across at the Bay of Bengal. Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) and Haldia in India and Mongla in Bangladesh are the principal seaports on the delta.
  4.  The federation of Pakistan, which came into being in 1947, comprised of two wings: West Pakistan and East Pakistan. There was a marked contrast between these two wings. One, whereas West Pakistan was ethnically diverse, East Pakistan was ethnically homogeneous. Two, whereas West Pakistan was essentially a feudal society, there was only a vestige of feudalism in East Pakistan. Hence, East Pakistanis were politically more conscious than West Pakistanis.
  5. Born on March 1, 1975, Maulana Fazlullah earned the sobriquet Mullah Radio for using illegal FM channels to broadcast vituperative speeches, threatening people with dire consequences should they not adhere to Shariat and instigating the residents of Swat into taking part in jehad. His 10000 armed volunteers established a parallel government in almost 60 towns of the Swat valley, replete with Islamic courts delivering instant justice and gun-toting men directing traffic.
  6. In 1937, the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act was passed, making the rules laid down by the Shariat for marriage, divorce, maintenance, inheritance and intestate succession applicable to aWMuslim women, 'notwidistanding any custom or usage to the contrary.'
  7.  - Akshay Kumar, one of the most popular male actors in Bollywood was born on on September 9, 1967 with the name of Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia. His movies in the 90s were also power packed with and so he was better known as Bollywood's action hero. Some of his noted action films are Khiladi, Mohra and Sabse Bada Khiladi. Akshay Kumar also played many romantic roles and some of the noteworthy ones amongst them are Yeh Dillagi, Dhadkan and Ek Rishtaa.
  8. The 9th Asian Games was held in New Delhi India fir 16 days during Nov. 29-Dec. 4, 1982 with about 4500 athletes from 33 countries participating.
  9. : Cricket in the Twenty20 format may be a novelty at the moment, but it has already made a breakthrough into the 16th Asian Games to be staged at Guangzhou, China, in 2010.
  10. Nicknamed the 'Villans,' Aston Villa was formed by the members of the Aston Villa Wesleyan Church in 1874.


  1. Corbett national park was established in 1936. It is the India's first national park and the first sanctuary to come under Project Tiger.
  2. Maharashtra's oldest National Park created in 1955, the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve. It is also one of India's 25 Project Tiger Reserve. The National Park is 623 sq. kms in area, consisting of two forested rectangles of the Tadoba and Andhari range
  3. Project Tiger launched in 1973, for the total environmental protection of this endangered species
  4. The tomb is just opposite to famous Humayun Tomb in Delhi. This is the shrine of a famous mystic and Sufi saint of Chisti tradition, Sheikh Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya Chisti. Nizamuddin Auliya was born in the then Oudh and now Uttar Pradesh in the year 1236. Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya is said to be the direct descendent of Khwaza Moinuddin Chisti of Ajmer. Auliya had a large following in India that included the likes of Aladdin Khilji, Mohammed bin Tughlaq 
  5. Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha, is 306 km from Kathmandu in Nepal. Lord Buddha was born in 623 BC in Lumbini. Places to visit in Lumbini on Buddhist Pilgrimage Tours are the Sacred Garden, the Maya Temple, Puskani Pond, Ashokan Pillar, Nepal Buddha Temple and Lumbini Museum. Lumbini is listed in the UNESCO's World Heritage Site. Bodh Gaya, the place where Prince Siddhartha attained Enlightenment, is 13 km from Gaya in Bihar. 
  6.  Lord Mahavira, the 24th Jain Tirthankara, was  born here in Kundligrama (Vaishali) in 599 BC Some of the main attractions here are the newly built Vishwa Shanti Stupa, the Ashokan pillars and a host of other structures related to both Buddhism and Jainism.
  7. The district of Kushinagar is named after the sacred death-place of Lord Buddha. At Kushinagar, Lord Buddha, an apostle of peace, comapassion and non-violence, attained Mahaparinirvana (Salvation) in 483 BC. History The present Kushinagar is identified with Kushawati ( in pre- Buddha period ) and Kushinara (in Buddha period). Kushinara was the capital of Mallas which was one of the sixteen mahajanpads of the 6th Century BC.
  8.  Hussain Sagar Lake which links twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad was constructed during the reign of Ibrahim Qutub Shah, by Hussainshah Wali, in 1562. There are 33 statues of historical personage of Andhra Desha placed along the bund of the lake. Another major attraction of Hussain Sagar Lake is the installation of an 18 meter high 350 ton monolithic statue of Lord Buddha on the rock of Gibraltor in the middle of the Lake.
  9. Pawapuri was at this place that Lord Mahavira, the twenty fourth Tirthankar attained "Nirvana" or eternal salvation from the cycle of death and birth in the year 527 BC. The Pictures shows the "Charan Paduka" housed in Jal Mandir, one of the 5 main temples in Pawapuri. It marks the spot where the mortal remains of the Lord Mahavira was creamated.
  10. enchanting coral islands in the Arabian Sea were called the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi islands, though they were popularly known as the Laccadives or Lakshadweep (hundred thousand islands). The territory was officially named Lakshadweep on 1 November 1973.


  1. Working capital is the amount of capital required to carry on a business. It can be a problem for businesses to obtain the necessary working capital, especially when they are starting up, and that is why it is so important for businesses to know all that they can about obtaining the necessary capital to build their business properly. Whether a business is small or large the same programs are available to those seeking financing.
  2. The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly on 2007  adopted a resolution seeking revival of the Legislative Council, abolished 19 years ago. ... The Council was abolished on May 30, 1985, during the Chief Ministership of NT Rama Rao.
  3. In 1959, the sphere-shaped Soviet spacecraft Luna 1 became the first spacecraft to orbit the moon.
  4.  NASA`s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which will hunt for water on the moon, launched aboard an Atlas V rocket on June 18. The satellite, launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, will relay more information about the lunar environment than any other ... 
  5. The largest bone in the average human body is the thigh bone or femur
    Babies are born with more than 300 bones while adults usually have 206 or fewer.
  6. CHOiCE stands for CHhattisgarh Online information for Citizen Empowerment. The CHhattisgarh Online information system for Citizen Empowerment (CHOiCE) is a revolutionary approach to citizen services and provides one stop solution for anywhere-anytime based government.
  7. Aman Kumar Singh, CEO of CHhattisgarh infotech and biotech Promotion Society (CHiPS) and Secretary-in-charge (IT) of Government of Chhattisgarh. Various landmark projects related to online G2C services like CHOiCE Project, online land records (Bhuiyan), Rural e-Governance (e-Gram Suraj), online learning (e-Classroom) and e-Procurement were successfully implemented under his leadership.
  8. Shah Jahan, the Mughal Emperor, was succeeded by Aurangzeb in 1658 AD. The Mughal tradition of building opulent buildings came to a halt with Aurangzeb`s ascend to the throne. Being an orthodox Muslim he restricted his creative urges to mosques and tombs.
  9. History says that Arjuman Banu alias Mumtaz, the daughter of Emperor Jahangir's Prime Minister, supposedly captured the heart of Prince Khurram (Shah Jahan) the minute he saw her. In 1612, at the age of 21, she married him and became his beloved consort Mumtaz Mahal. Mumtaz used to accompany Shah Jahan in his military campaigns. She was his comrade, his advisor and she inspired him to acts of charity and benevolence towards the weak and the needy
  10. Shah Jahan was born as Prince Khurram on 5th January 1592, to Emperor Jahangir and his second wife, Jagat Gosini (a Rajput Princess).

Saturday, November 28, 2009


Very high human development (developed countries)

Rank Country HDI

1 ▬  Norway 0.971 ▲ 0.001

2 ▬ Australia 0.970 ▲ 0.002
3 ▬ Iceland 0.969 ▲ 0.002
4 ▬ Canada 0.966 ▲ 0.001
5 ▬ Ireland 0.965 ▲ 0.001
6 ▲ (1) Netherlands 0.964 ▲ 0.003
7 ▼ (1) Sweden 0.963 ▲ 0.002
8 ▲ (3) France 0.961 ▲ 0.003
9 ▬ Switzerland 0.960 ▲ 0.001
10 ▬ Japan


Gandhinagar pronunciation (help·info) (English: Gandhinager Hindi: गांधीनगर Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat and Proved as 'Merged Capital' of India through its Connectivity with Financial Capital of India, Mumbai and Administrative Capital of Nation, Delhi, Gandhinagar is Located on the West Central point of Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor.

The famous Swaminarayan temple of is built here. There was, however, tremendous political pressure to make Gandhinagar a purely Indian enterprise, partly because the state of Gujarat was the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi. Kalia illumines Kahn's early influence in the city and his replacement by Doshi and then by American-trained H. K. Mewada, who had apprenticed with Le Corbusier in Chandigarh. Kalia shows that, unlike the other two cities, Gandhinagar would become emblematic of Gandhian ideals of swadeshi (Indigenous) goods and swaraj (self-rule)

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Primary colors

Primary colors

Primary Colors: The primary colors consist of 3 unique colors, red-yellow-blue. When mixing these 3 colors hues, at least in theory, all the other hues of the color wheel, including black can be created.

A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research and education. This distinguishes them from parks and pleasure gardens where plants, usually with showy flowers, are grown for public amenity only. Botanical gardens that specialize in trees are sometimes referred to as arboretums. They are occasionally associated with zoos.

List of botanical gardens in India


Lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD-25, LSD, formerly lysergide, commonly known as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family. LSD is non-addictive, non-toxic, and is well known for its psychological effects which can include closed and open eye visuals, a sense of time distortion, ego death and profoundcognitive shifts, as well as for its key role in 1960's counterculture. It is used mainly by psychonauts as an entheogen and in psychedelic therapy.

American flag

The flag of the United States of America (the American flag) consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars. The fifty stars on the flag represent the 50 U.S. states and the 13 stripes represent the original thirteen colonies that rebelled against the British monarchy and became the first states in the Union.[1] Nicknames for the flag include the Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, and The Star-Spangled Banner (also the name of the national anthem).


The flag of the United States is one of the nation's most widely recognized symbols. Within the U.S. it is frequently displayed, not only on public buildings, but on private residences. It is also used as a motif on decals for car windows, and clothing ornaments such as badges and lapel pins. Throughout the world it is used in public discourse to refer to the U.S., not only as a nation, state, government, and set of policies, but also as an ideology and set of ideas.

Apart from the numbers of stars and stripes representing the number of current and original states, respectively, and the union with its stars representing a constellation, there is no legally defined symbolism to the colors and shapes on the flag. However, folk theories and traditions abound.

Haryana first state to provide health insurance to all its poor

Chandigarh, July 20 (IANS) Haryana has become the first state in the country to provide health insurance cover to all its below poverty line (BPL) families.
Nearly 1.29 million (12.97 lakh) families have been covered under the scheme, Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda said Monday.

Hooda said the scheme, initiated in Haryana from January 2008, has been completely implemented in record period of time - beating the state government’s own deadline by four years. The scheme was to be originally implemented by 2012-13 in Haryana’s 21 districts

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Black Beauty

Black Beauty is an 1877 novel by English author Anna Sewell. It was composed in the last years of her life, during which she was confined to her house as an invalid.[1] The novel became an immediate bestseller, with Sewell living just long enough (five months) to see her first and only novel become a success.

Although not originally intended as a children's novel, but for people who work with horses, it soon became a children's classic. With 50 million copies sold, Black Beauty is one of the best-selling books of all time.[2] While outwardly teaching animal welfare, it also contains allegorical lessons about how to treat people with kindness, sympathy and respect. Despite recollections to the contrary, there is no evidence that this book was ever banned in South Africa .

Bangladesh clamps down on beggars

Beggar in Dhaka
The government says that it is determined to eliminate begging

Thursday, 2 April 2009 12:45 UK

The Bangladeshi authorities will vigorously enforce a ban on begging so that it can be eliminated within five years, the government says.

Their announcement follows a decision by parliament on Tuesday to grant metropolitan city status to the towns of Sylhet and Barisal.

The new classification means that begging is automatically banned, as it is in Dhaka, Chittagong and Rajshahi.

Critics say the ban has not worked, as many beggars still ply the streets.

They have have accused the government of making meaningless and unenforceable policy statements.


ActionAid Bangladesh country director Farah Kabir said that while the government's aim to eliminate begging was "laudable" it had given no indication yet as to how it would achieve this objective.

"If we could remove begging from our streets obviously we would welcome it," she told the BBC, "but bearing in mind that about 40% of the people of this country are below the UN-designated poverty line it seems to be a somewhat over-ambitious target.

"We don't know what will happen to people who are beggars - is the government proposing that they be removed from urban areas?

"They cannot be made suddenly to become invisible, they are on the streets in most cases because there are no employment opportunities for them. They do not beg out of choice," she said.

A social welfare ministry spokesman told the Associated Press news agency that detailed guidelines on how begging would be banned were expected to be in place within a month.

According to the proposals, anyone caught begging in public places would face a maximum three months in jail.

Ms Kabir said such a measure would be a "blatant violation" of human rights.

Begging is rampant in the country's two main cities - Dhaka and Chittagong - even though it is technically supposed to be banned.

Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928, Punjabi: ਲਾਲਾ ਲਜਪਤ ਰਾਯ,Urdu: لالا لجپت راے; Hindi: लाला लाजपत राय) was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (The Lion of Punjab). He was also the founder of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company.

Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ) (November 13, 1780 in Gujranwala, Mughal Empire-June 20, 1839 in Lahore, Sikh Empire) was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire and was also known as Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab).

Man of Peace

The title Man of Peace was created in 1999 by the annual World Summit of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates in Rome. The purpose of the award is to recognize individuals who have offered "an outstanding contribution to international social justice and peace".

An initiative by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, himself a winner of a Nobel Peace Prize, the award is presented in Rome's Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) by President Gorbachev, Walter Veltroni, Mayor of Rome, and the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates attending the annual summit meeting.

Recipients of the award include:

In its early years the award was referred to as both the "Man for Peace" in Europe and "Man of Peace" in the United States. In 2006 its title was officially changed to "Man of Peace"

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