Saturday, June 19, 2010

Present Cabinet Ministers

Serial Number Portfolio Name of Minister
1. Prime Minister and also In-Charge of the Ministries/Departments viz:
Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions;
Ministry of Planning;
Ministry of Water Resources;
Department of Atomic Energy; and
Department of Space
Dr. Manmohan Singh
2. Minister of Finance Shri Pranab Mukherjee
3. Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution Shri Sharad Pawar
4. Minister of Defence Shri A.K. Antony
5. Minister of Home Affairs Shri P. Chidambaram
6. Minister of Railways Km. Mamata Banerjee
7. Minister of External Affairs Shri S.M. Krishna
8. Minister of Steel Shri Virbhadra Singh
9. Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh
10. Minister of Health and Family Welfare Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad
11. Minister of Power Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde
12. Minister of Law and Justice Shri M. Veerappa Moily
13. Minister of New and Renewable Energy Dr. Farooq Abdullah
14. Minister of Urban Development Shri S. Jaipal Reddy
15. Minister of Road Transport and Highways Shri Kamal Nath
16. Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs Shri Vayalar Ravi
17. Minister of Textiles Shri Dayanidhi Maran
18. Minister of Communications and Information Technology Shri A. Raja
19. Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas Shri Murli Deora
20. Minister of Information and Broadcasting Smt. Ambika Soni
21. Minister of Labour and Employment Shri Mallikarjun Kharge
22. Minister of Human Resource Development Shri Kapil Sibal
23. Minister of Mines and Minister of Development of North Eastern Region Shri B.K. Handique
24. Minister of Commerce and Industry Shri Anand Sharma
25. Minister of Rural Development and Minister of Panchayati Raj Shri C.P. Joshi
26. Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and Minister of Tourism Kum. Selja
27. Minister of Food Processing Industries Shri Subodh Kant Sahay
28. Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports Dr. M.S. Gill
29. Minister of Shipping Shri G.K. Vasan
30. Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Shri Pawan K. Bansal
31. Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Shri Mukul Wasnik
32. Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Kantilal Bhuria
33. Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers Shri M.K. Alagiri
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Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH)

The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) was established in 1993 under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas through Government of India Resolution.

Objectives of DGH are to promote sound management of the oil and natural gas resources having a balanced regard for environment, safety, technological and economic aspects of the petroleum activity.

DGH has been entrusted with several responsibilities like implementation of New Exploraton Licensing Policy(NELP), matters concerning the Production Sharing Contracts for discovered fields and exploration blocks, promotion of investment in E&P Sector and monitoring of E&P activities including review of reservoir performance of producing fields.

In addition, DGH is also engaged in opening up of new unexplored areas for future exploration and development of non-conventional hydrocarbon energy sources like Coal Bed Methane(CBM) as also futuristic hydrocarbon energy resources like Gas Hydrates and Oil Shales.

Recent News

S K Srivastava is new director general of DGH

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Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Tuesday, June 15, 2010


The Central Government, by a notification dated 20.2.2009, as set up ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority’ (NGRBA) as an empowered planning, financing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganga river,in exercise of the powers conferred under the Environment (Protection) Act,1986.  

The Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of the Authority, and it has as its members, the Union Ministers Concerned and the Chief Ministers of states through which Ganga flows, viz., Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, among others

The objective of the Authority is to ensure effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga by adopting a holistic approach with the river basin as the unit of planning. 

The functions of the Authority include all measures necessary for planning and execution of programmes for abatement of pollution in the Ganga in keeping with sustainable development  needs.
Key Features of New Approach
  • River basin will be the unit of planning and management. This is an internationally accepted strategy for integrated management of rivers.
  • Accordingly, a new institutional mechanism in the form of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) will  spearhead river conservation efforts at the national level. Implementation will be by the State Agencies and Urban Local  Bodies
  • The new strategy will take into account the competing demands on water and will seek t ensure minimum ecological flows. STPs minimise the pollution load up to discharge standard of BOD of 30mg/litre requiring dilution to achieve  river water quality of 3mg/ litre.
  • The minimum ecological flows or the entire Ganga will be determined through  modelling exercises. NGRBA
  • will take appropriate measures to regulate water abstraction for maintaining ecological flows in the river.
Functions of  NGRBA
  • The NGRBA would be responsible for addressing  the problem of pollution  in Gangain a holistic and comprehensive manner. This will include water quality, minimum ecological flows, sustainable access and other issues relevant to river ecology and management.
  • The NGRBA will not only be regulatory body but will also have developmental role in terms of planning & monitoring of the river conservation   activities and ensuring that necessary resources are available.
  • The NRGBA would work for maintaining the water quality of the river Ganga upto  acceptable standards. The pollution abetment activities will be taken through the existing implementation mechanisms in the State and also through special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs0 at the pollution hotspots.
  • The NGRBA    will ensure minimum ecological flow in the Ganga by regulating water abstraction and by promoting water storage projects.
  • The NGRBA will plan and monitor programmes for cleaning of Ganga and its tributaries. To being with, it will concentrate on Ganga main stream.
  • The NGRBA would draw upon professional expertise within and outside the Government for advice on techno-economic issues.
  • The technical and administrative support to NGRBA shall be provided by the Ministry of Environment  &  for advice on techno-economic issues.
  • The technical and administrative support to NGRBA shall be provided by the Ministry of Environment & Forests
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Sunday, June 13, 2010


Indian Bhangra dancers- One of the many perfor...Image via Wikipedia
Bhangra dance and music traces its origins to the Punjab region of Northern India. The exact age of the dance is uncertain but evidence of it can be traced as far back as 300 B.C. Although, some historians and gurus argue the dance could in fact be around 3,000 years old.
It was practiced by the Punjabi farmers of the villages and mainly performed during the harvest festival of Bhaisakhi. To this day, Bhangra is still danced to welcome in the spring weather. Its main purpose is to simply have fun and celebrate life.

The Forms.

There are nine forms of Bhangra traditionally practiced in various regions of the Punjab nation.

  • Gidha: The dance performed only by women. The movements are presented more gracefully with an obvious feminine flair.
  • Julli: A Muslim sitting- dance practiced by priests or holy men as a form of worship on hermitages.
  • Jhumar: A folk dance where the dancers circle around a drum, clapping and chanting.
  • Kikli: A dance in which four girls join hands weaving in and out of a circle while singing.
  • Saami: A dance performed by women from the Sandalbar region.
  • Daankara: A dance performed for weddings by the men. The clack sticks together in time with the drum while traveling in a circle.
  • Dhamal: A very wild dance with aggressive shoulder bounces, head shaking, arm waving and shouting.
  • Luddi: A dance in which the dancer extends one arm and the other behind his head while swaying like a snake in time to the music, almost as though in a trance.
  • Gatka: A martial art performed by the Sikh men.

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Saturday, June 12, 2010

Quiz Time

1." The Magna Carta of English Education in India" began only after the visit of _____

  • Hunter

  • Sir Charles Wood

  • Lord Macaulay

  • William bentick

  • 2. University Act of 1904 was passed during the time of _____
  • Lord Lytton

  • Lord Rippon

  • Lord Curson

  • Lord Dalhousie

  • 3.The permanent land revenue settlemt was announced by____________.
  • Lord Lytton

  • Lord Wellesley

  • Lord Curson

  • Lord Dalhousie

  • 4.Who is the first Indian woman to SKI to the South Pole?

    5. Who is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand?(May 2010)

    6.What type if ship is INS CHAKRA?
  • Frigate

  • Mine Sweeper

  • Air Craft Carrier

  • Nuclear Attack Submarine

  • Oil tanker

  • 7.What is the full for of "S.S.A"? ( COnnected to Education)
    8.Who is the first woman speaker fo Lok Sabha?

    9.The Year was declared as the Year of ____________by UNO.

    10.What is the full form of COBRA?

    11.Name the longest river of South America

    12. Himalayas can be classified into
  • Groups of mountains

  • Gordillera

  • Individual mountains

  • Chain Mountains

  • Folded Mountains

    13. Which one of the following is close to equator?
  • Scrubs

  • Grass lands

  • Dense Forest

  • Scattered Trees

  • 14.Which Asian country carries out maximum Paddy cultivation.

    15. Which country has the largest petroleum reserves in the world?

    16.What is a computer's microschip ( Semi Conductor) made from?

    17. Who built India's first 5 Star Hotel "Taj Mahal" in Mumbai 1903?

    18.Which company boasts an annual turnover of over 300 core, started some decades ago wiht a borrowed coapital of just Rs.80/-?

    19.Which commodity contributes most to Inida's major share of exports?

    20.Which Bollywood actor owns a Boutique and A Restaurant named "Mischeif"?
    Shah Rukh Khan
    Sunil Shetty
    Sanjay Dutt
    Salman Khan

    21.What is the "fear of computers" is known as?

    22.What is the term for unauthorized access to a computer's program for fun or frudulent purposes?

    23.What is the maximum capacity of a cd-rom?

    24.What is the longest key in a normal keyboard of a computer or typewriter?

    25.What term refers to a circuit consisting of a unitary structure with no connecting wires?

    Answers to GK quiz:

    1. Lord Macaulay

    2. Lord Curzon
    3. Lord Wellesley
    4. Reena Kaushal

    5. Sibhu Soren
    6. Nuclear Attack Submarine
    7. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
    8. Meera Kumar
    9. Biodiversity
    10. Combat Battalion for Resolute Action
    11. Amazon
    12. Folded Mountains
    13. Dence Forest

    14. Bangaladesh
    15. Saudi Arabia
    16. Slicon
    17. Jamshetji Tata
    18.Lijjat Papad
    19. Jewellery and Gems
    20. Sunil Shetty
    21.Cyber Phobia
    23. 700 MB.
    24. Spacebar
    25.Integrated Circuit

    Friday, June 11, 2010

    Some PSUs in GOI

      Balmer & Lawrie
    Established in 1867 by two Scotsmen, George Stephen Balmer and Alexander Lawrie, the company represents a tradition of stability and resilience. High standards of customer service, innovative outlook and dedicated human resources have enabled the organization to achieve a leadership role in today's highly competitive markets.
    web site url :
      Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL)
    Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) is a Public Sector Undertaking engaged in mining of coal and allied activities. It occupies an important place in as much as it produces bulk of the coking coal mined in the country. BCCL meets almost5 50% of teh total prime coking coal requirement of the intregrated steel sector. It also supplies substantial quantity of coal to the pig iron sector and bulk of the coal requirement of the power station in the Northern region.
    web site url :
      Bharat Dynamics Ltd
    BDL was established in July 1970 under the control of Ministry of Defence with the prime objective of establishing a production base for guided missiles in India. It is now one amongst a few strategic industries of the world having the capability to produce the most advanced guided missile systems for Armed Forces.
    web site url :
      Bharat Earth Movers Ltd
    Bharat Earth Movers Limited is a premier ISO 9001-2000 Company in India and the second largest manufacturer of earthmoving equipment in Asia. A four- decade-old multi-locational and multi-product company, BEML has vital applications in diverse sectors of economy such as coal, mining, steel, cement, power, irrigation, construction, road building and railway. It has expanded its product range to cover high-quality hydraulics, heavy-duty diesel engines, Welding robots and undertaking of heavy fabrication jobs.
    web site url :
      Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)
    BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing divisions, four Power Sector regional centers, over 100 project sites, eight service centers and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services - efficiently and at competitive prices.
    web site url :
      Bharat Refractories limited
    Bharat Refractories limited, a public sector company under administrative control of ministry of steels, Govt. of India came into existence in 1974. Since inception, the company has crossed major milestones to become one of the largest refractory producers in India. The company is world renowned for its quality and has been successfully catering to the requirement of the steel industry and other users.
    web site url :
      Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited(BSNL).
    On October 1, 2000 the Department of Telecom Operations, Government of India became a corporation and was christened Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited(BSNL). Today, BSNL is the No. 1 Telecommunications Company and the largest Public Sector Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of $ 3600 million and networth of $ 13.85 billion. It has a network of over 45 million lines covering 5000 towns with over 35 million telephone connections.
    web site url :
      Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd
    Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited (BRPL) was incorporated as Government of India Undertaking under the administrative control of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas on 20th February 1974. The company became a subsidiary of IndianOil on 29th of March 2001 after disinvestments of share by Govt of India.
    web site url :
      Cement Corporation of India Limited (CCI)
    Cement Corporation of India Limited (CCI) was incorporated as a Company wholly owned by Government of India on 18th January 1965 with the principal objective of achieving self sufficiency in cement production. The authorised and paid-up capital of the company as on 31.3.2003 was Rs. 700 crores and Rs. 428.28 crores respectively.
    web site url :
      Cental Coal Fields Ltd
    The Mission of CCL is to produce and market the planned quantity of coal and coal products efficiently and economically with due regard to safety, conservation and quality.
    web site url :
      Centre For Railway Information Systems
    Centre For Railway Information Systems is entrusted with the task of design, development and implementation of the Freight Operations Information Systems(FOIS), alongwith its associated communications infrastructure. The Centre started functioning from July,1987. It is a registered society having an autonomous status and headed by Managing Director . CRIS is mainly a project oriented organisation engaged in development of major computer systems on the Railways.
    web site url :
      Coal India Ltd
    The company is incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and is wholly owned by the Government of India (GOI). Company's objective is to promote the development and utilisation of the coal reserves in the country for meeting the present and likely future requirement of the nation with due regard to need for conservation of non-renewable resources and safety of mine workers.
    web site url :
      Engineers India Ltd
    Engineers India Limited was established in 1965 to provide engineering and related technical services for petroleum refineries and other industrial projects.In addition to petroleum refineries, with which EIL started initially, it has diversified into and excelled in other fields such as pipelines, petrochemicals, oil and gas processing, offshore structures and platforms, fertilizers, metallurgy and power.
    web site url :
      Erstwhile Gas Authority of India Limited(GAIL)
    GAIL (India) Ltd, (Erstwhile Gas Authority of India Limited) was set up by the Indian Government in August 1984 to create gas sector infrastructure for sustained development of the gas market in India. Primarily a natural gas company, it deals with all aspects of the gas-value chain, including exploration, production, transmission, extraction, processing, distribution and marketing of natural gas and its related process, products and services.
    web site url :
      Food Corporation of India
    The Food Corporation of India was setup under the Food Corporations Act 1964, in order to fulfil objectives of the Food policy. Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers. Distribution of foodgrains throughout the country for Public Distribution System; and Maintaining satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of foodgrains to ensure National Food Security.
    web site url :
      Heavy Water Board
    Heavy Water Board (HWB), a constituent unit under Department of Atomic Energy, is primarily responsible for production of Heavy Water (D2O) which is used as a 'moderator' and 'Coolant' in the nuclear power as well as research reactors. HWB is successfully operating six Heavy Water Plants in the country.
    web site url :
      Hindustan Aircraft Limited
    HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. Transport aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.
    web site url :
      Hindustan Insecticides Limited (HIL)
    HIL, a Government of India Enterprise under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Deptt. Of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Government of India, was incorporated Programme launched by the Government of India. Subsequently the Company diversified into agro pesticides to meet the requirements of agriculture sector, and has grown manifold, with a turnover of 1148 million rupees in 2001-02. Company has also entered into the field of safe and eco-friendly botanical and bio-pesticides for public health and plant protection.
    web site url :
      Hindusthan Aeronautics Ltd
    The history of the Indian Aircraft Industry can be traced to the founding of Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand Hirachand, an Industrialist of extra -ordinary vision. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. Hindustan Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur to form Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) on 01st October 1964.
    web site url :
      Indian Oil Corporation
    Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IndianOil) is the country's largest commercial enterprise, with a sales turnover of Rs. 1,30,203 crore.IndianOil is India's No.1 Company in Fortune's prestigious listing of the world's 500 largest corporations, ranked 189 for the year 2004 based on fiscal 2003 performance. It is also the 19th largest petroleum company in the world.
    web site url :
      India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)
    India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)is the nodal agency of the Government of India for promoting the country's external trade. ITPO, during its existence of nearly three decades, in the form of Trade Fair Authority of India and Trade Development Authority, has played a proactive role in catalysing trade, investment and technology transfer processes. Its promotional tools include organizing of fairs and exhibitions in India and abroad, Buyer-Seller Meets, Contact Promotion Programmes, Product Promotion Programmes, Promotion through Overseas Department Stores, Market Surveys and Information Dissemination.
    web site url :
      Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited
    Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited, a wholly owned Government of India Enterprise, was established in 1976 to develop the mine and plant facilities to produce 7.5 million tonnes of concentrate per year. The mine and plant facilities were commissioned in 1980 and the first shipment of concentrate was made in October 1981. A pelletisation plant with a capacity of 3 million tonnes per year was commissioned in 1987 for production of high quality blast furnace and direct reduction grade pellets for export
    web site url :
      National Fertilizers Ltd
    NFL was incorporated on 23rd August, 1974 with two manufacturing Units at Bathinda and Panipat. Subsequently, on the reorganization of Fertilizer group of Companies in 1978, the Nangal Unit of Fertilizer Corporation of India came under the NFL fold. The Company expanded its installed capacity in 1984 by installing and commissioning of its Vijaipur gas based Plant in Madhya Pradesh.
    web site url :
      National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC)
    NSTFDC is the Apex organisation for providing financial assistance for scheme(s)/project(s) for the economic development of Scheduled Tribes. The objectives of NSTFDC are Identification of economic activities of importance to the Scheduled Tribes so as to generate employment and raise their level of income.Upgradation of skills and processes used by the Scheduled Tribes through providing both institutional and on the job training etc.
    web site url :
      National Small Industries Corporation Ltd.
    The National Small Industries Corporation Ltd., an ISO 9001:2000 Company, was established in 1955 by the Government of India with a view to promote, aid and foster the growth of Small Industries in the country. NSIC continues to remain at the forefront of industrial development throughout the country, with it's various programs and projects, to assist the small scale sector in the country.
    web site url :
      Neyveli Lignite Corporation
    NLC Limited is an integrated project complex owned by Govt.of India. Liginite excavation and power generation are the core activities of NLC. It has three opencast liginite mines.
    web site url :
      Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)
    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is a wholly owned Enterprise of the Government of India under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India. It has been incorporated in September 1987 as a Public Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956 with the objective of undertaking the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the atomic power stations for generation of electricity in pursuance of the schemes and programmes of the Government of India under the provision of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962.
    web site url :
      Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)
    A modest entity in the serene Himalayan settings - Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) was set up as a Commission on August 14, 1956. The company became a corporate on June 23, 1993, which has now grown into a full-fledged horizontally integrated petroleum company. Today, ONGC is a flagship public sector enterprise and India's highest profit making corporate, achieving the record of being the first Indian corporate to register a five digit profit figure of Rs. 10,529 Crore in the year 2002-03.
    web site url :
      Shipping Corporation of India
    The Shipping Corporation of India was established on 2nd October 1961 by the amalgamation of Eastern Shipping Corporation and Western Shipping Corporation. Starting out as a marginal Liner shipping company with just 19 vessels, the SCI today has metamorphosed into a giant conglomerate having 83 ships of 4.6 million DWT with substantial interests in 10 different segments of the shipping trade.
    web site url :
      Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
    Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel making company in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets.
    web site url :
      Steel Authority of India
    Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets.
    web site url :
      The Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC)
    The Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in the year 1971 is a major industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. The complex is responsible for the supply of nuclear fuel bundles and reactor core components for all the nuclear power reactors operating in India. It is a unique facility where natural and enriched uranium fuel, zirconium alloy cladding and reactor core components are manufactured under one roof starting from the raw materials.
    web site url :
      Uranium Corporation Ltd
    Incorporated on 4th October 1967, Uranium Corporation of India ltd, a public sector Enterprise under the Department of Atomic Energy, is at the forefront of the Nuclear Power Cycle. Fulfilling the requirement of Uranium for pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, UCIL plays a very siginificant role in India's Nuclear Power Generation Programme.
    web site url :
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    Wednesday, June 9, 2010

    Some most cotroversial books banned in India

    • 1989, Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses was banned in India, as it was in many countries, for its purported attacks on Islam.India was the second country in the world (after Singapore) to ban the book.
    • 1990, Understanding Islam through Hadis by Ram Swarup was banned. In 1990 the Hindi translation of the book was banned, and in March 1991 the English original became banned as well.
    • A book on Shivaji by Queens University professor Jayant Lele was also this book raised a question about Shivaji's father.
    • Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India by American scholar James Laine.
    • Laine's translation of the Sivabharata, entitled The Epic of Shivaji, was also banned. The ban followed an attack by Sambhaji Brigade activists on the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune. The subsequent governments have not revoked the ban.
    • In Punjab the Bhavsagar Granth was banned by the state government, following clashes between mainstream Sikhs and the apostate Sikh sect that produced it. It was said that the granth had copied a number of portions from the Guru Granth Sahib. In one of the photographs it showed Baba Bhaniara, wearing a shining coat and headdress in a style similar to that made familiar through the popular posters of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth guru of the Sikhs. In another Baba Bhaniara is shown riding a horse in the manner of Guru Gobind Singh[citat.
    • The Polyester Prince - (ISBN 1864484683) a biography of the Indian businessman Dhirubhai Ambani was banned.
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    Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology Thanjavur
    Indian Institute of crop processing technology is a world class R&D and educational institution under the ministry of food processing industries, govt of India

    Considering the importance and growth, govt of India has identified food processing as a sunrise sector Indian Institute of crop processing technology (IICPT) offers B.Tech., M.Tech., Doctoral degrees in food process engineering (affiliated to Annamalai university, Tamilnadu)

    IICPT has world class teaching, laboratory and research facilities and has tie ups with several Indian and international institutions
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    Tuesday, June 8, 2010

    Major Nuclear and Chemical Accidents around the globe

    Though nuclear power is a good source of energy and is generally not a threat, there have been instances when security measures have failed. Nuclear meltdowns can cause dangerous radiation to escape into the surrounding environment.

    Dec. 12, Chalk River, nr. Ottawa, Canada: a partial meltdown of the reactor's uranium fuel core resulted after the accidental removal of four control rods. Although millions of gallons of radioactive water accumulated inside the reactor, there were no injuries.

    Love Canal, nr. Niagara Falls, N.Y.: was destroyed by waste from chemical plants. By the 1990s, the town had been cleaned up enough for families to begin moving back to the area.

    Oct. 7, Windscale Pile No. 1, north of Liverpool, England: fire in a graphite-cooled reactor spewed radiation over the countryside, contaminating a 200-square-mile area.
    South Ural Mountains: explosion of radioactive wastes at Soviet nuclear weapons factory 12 mi from city of Kyshtym forced the evacuation of over 10,000 people from a contaminated area. No casualties were reported by Soviet officials.

    nr. Greifswald, East Germany: radioactive core of reactor in the Lubmin nuclear power plant nearly melted down due to the failure of safety systems during a fire.

    March 28, Three Mile Island, nr. Harrisburg, Pa.: one of two reactors lost its coolant, which caused overheating and partial meltdown of its uranium core. Some radioactive water and gases were released. This was the worst accident in U.S. nuclear-reactor history. 
    Dec. 3, Bhopal, India: toxic gas, methyl isocyanate, seeped from Union Carbide insecticide plant, killing more than 2,000 and injuring about 150,000.

    April 26, Chernobyl, nr. Kiev, Ukraine: explosion and fire in the graphite core of one of four reactors released radioactive material that spread over part of the Soviet Union, eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and later western Europe. 31 claimed dead. Total casualties are unknown. Worst such accident to date.

    Sept. 18, GoiĆ¢nia, Brazil: 244 people contaminated with cesium-137 from a cancer-therapy machine that had been sold as scrap. Four people died in worst radiation disaster in Western Hemisphere.

    Sept. 30, Tokaimura, Japan: uncontrolled chain reaction in a uranium-processing nuclear fuel plant spewed high levels of radioactive gas into the air, killing two workers and seriously injuring one other.

    Aug. 9, Mihama, Japan: nonradioactive steam leaked from a nuclear power plant, killing four workers and severely burning seven others.

    July 17, Kashiwazaki, Japan: radiation leaks, burst pipes, and fires at a major nuclear power plant followed a 6.8 magnitude earthquake near Niigata. Japanese officials, frustrated at the plant operators' delay in reporting the damage, closed the plant a week later until its safety could be confirmed. Further investigation revealed that the plant had unknowingly been built directly on top of an active seismic fault.

    February 7, Port Wentworth, Georgia: an explosion fueled by combustible sugar dust killed 13 people and injured several others at the Imperial Sugar plant near Savannah.

    Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL)
    The Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CBI), New Delhi was established in the year 1968 as a scientific department to provide scientific support services in the investigation of crime in Delhi and out side Delhi. The Laboratory is located at Block No.4, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003. CFSL(CBI), New Delhi is a scientific department under the administrative control of CBI and overall control of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
    Besides this, the CFSL has Scientific Aids Unit located at CBI Branch in Chennai. The Central Forensic Science Laboratory(CBI), New Delhi today is one of the most comprehensive Laboratories in the country with ten fully equipped Divisions, namely Ballistics, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Forensics, Documents, Finger Prints, Lie Detector Photo & Scientific Aids, Physics and Serology divisions with addition of state-of-the-art laboratory for DNA profiling

    . The Laboratory has a sanctioned strength of 119 Scientific Staff and allocated fund in RE (Non-Plan) Rs. 4.42 crore and RE (plan) Rs. 15 lakhs in year 2007-08.CFSL Undertakes the scientific analysis of crime exhibits referred by CBI, Delhi Police, Judiciary, Vigilance Departments of Ministries, Public Undertakings & State/Central Govt. Departments.

    The experts of CFSL examine the exhibits forwarded by the Investigating Agencies and render expert opinion and substantiate their opinions in the Court of Law through court testimony and evidence.

    CBI is utilizing services of the scientific experts of this Laboratory at the Scene of Crime throughout India for detection of physical clues.

     The Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CBI), New Delhi is committed to deliver the quality work for all its functional disciplines and is an ISO/IEC 17025 Certified laboratory.
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    Monday, June 7, 2010

    ICAO (International Civil Aviation Org.)

    Flag of the International Civil Aviation Organ...Image via Wikipedia
    intergovernmental specialized agency associated with the United Nations (UN). Established in 1947 by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944), which had been signed by 52 states three years earlier in Chicago, 

    the ICAO is dedicated to developing safe and efficient international air transport for peaceful purposes and ensuring a reasonable opportunity for every state to operate international airlines. 

    The organization’s permanent headquarters are in Montreal.

    The ICAO’s activities have included establishing and reviewing international technical standards for aircraft operation and design, crash investigation, the licensing of personnel, telecommunications, meteorology, air navigation equipment, ground facilities for air transport, and search-and-rescue missions. The organization also promotes regional and international agreements aimed at liberalizing aviation markets, helps to establish legal standards to ensure that the growth of aviation does not compromise safety, and encourages the development of other aspects of international aviation law.

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    Sunday, June 6, 2010

    Airports Authority of India (AAI)

    Shri V.P. Agrawal ---Chairman

    The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on 1st April 1995 by merging the International Airports Authority of India and the National Airports Authority with a view to accelerate the integrated development, expansion and modernization of the operational, terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the country conforming to international standards.

    Functions of AAI

    The functions of AAI are as follows:
    • Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of international and domestic airports and civil enclaves.
    • Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.
    • Construction, Modification and Management of passenger terminals.
    • Development and Management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports.
    • Provision of passenger facilities and information system at the passenger terminals at airports.
    • Expansion and strengthening of operation area, viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway etc.
    • Provision of visual aids.
    • Provision of Communication and Navigation aids, viz. ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar etc.

    Air Cargo in INDIA

                   The estimated growth of air cargo business in India during 2011-12 is 11.8 per cent.  The growth in air cargo was approximately 5 per cent in 2008-09.  
                   Airports Authority of India (AAI)  has  plans to develop cargo handling facilities at Srinagar, Surat and Agartala airports.

                   The  airports where cargo handling facility is operated by  Airports  Authority of India (AAI) are Chennai, Kolkata,Guwahati,  Lucknow,  Coimbatore,  Amritsar  and  Indore.  In addition, airports where cargo handling facility is operated by  State  Government  Agencies  / others are Delhi, Mumbai, Amritsar,  Nagpur,  Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Varanasi, Calicut, Visakhapatnam, Trivandrum, Bagdogra, Goa, Cochin, Srinagar, Bhubaneshwar and Tiruchirapalli.

    Additional reading--  Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport (MIHAN) project is in  NAGPUR
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    Chittagong Hill Tracts Conflict (Shanti Bahini Insurgency)

    The Chittagong Hill Tracts Conflict was the political conflict and armed struggle between the Government of Bangladesh by the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samiti (United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts) and its armed wing, the Shanti Bahini over the issue of autonomy and the rights of the indigenous peoples and tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Shanti Bahini launched an insurgency against government forces in 1977, and the conflict continued for twenty years until the government and the PCJSS signed the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord in 1997.

    Indira-Mujib Treaty

    Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of ...Image via Wikipedia
    The Indo-Bangladeshi Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace was a 25-year treaty that was signed on March 19, 1972 forging close bilateral relations between India and the newly-established state of Bangladesh. The treaty was also known as the Indira-Mujib Treaty, after the signatories of the treaty the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.


    Expiration of the treaty

    The two governments declined to renegotiate or renew the treaty when it was for expiry in 1997.Although initially received enthusiastically by both nations, the treaty with India became subject of resentment and controversy in Bangladesh, which saw it as unequal and an imposition of excessive Indian influence. Issues such as the dispute over water resources of the Farakka Barrage and India's perceived delayed withdrawal of troops began to diminish the spirit of friendship.Sheikh Mujib's pro-India policies antagonised many in politics and the military.  

    Assassination of Mujib in 1975 led to the establishment of military regimes that sought to distance the country from India.
    Mujib's death led to the establishment of diplomatic relations with Pakistan and other nations that had opposed the creation of Bangladesh, such as Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China. Bangladesh was criticised for allowing bases on its territory for anti-India secessionist groups such as the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), and Bangladeshi intelligence agencies were suspected of maintaining links with Pakistan's intelligence agencies. Bangladesh in turn alleged that India was supporting the Shanti Bahini insurgency in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

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    Thursday, June 3, 2010

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

    Map of the Members States of the Nuclear Suppl...Gray are the members
    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferationnuclear weapon by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.

    The test demonstrated that certain non-weapons specific nuclear technology could be readily turned to weapons development. 
    Nations already signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) saw the need to further limit the export of nuclear equipment, materials or technology. 
    Another benefit was that non-NPT and non-Zangger Committee nations, then specifically France, could be brought in.

    Functions and powers of UNSC

    UN Security Council Chamber in New York.Image via Wikipedia

    Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:
    • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
    • to investigate any dispute or situation which mightlead to international friction;
    • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
    • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
    • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
    • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
    • to take military action against an aggressor;
    • to recommend the admission of new Members;
    • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas";
    • to recommend to the GeneralAssembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
    The Council is composed of five permanent members — China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — and ten non-permament members (with year of term's end):
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