Friday, January 22, 2010

Dose (First Indian Woman)

First in India (Female)
India’s first woman president Smt. Pratibha Patil
India’s first woman Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi
India’s first woman governor Sarojini Naidu
India’s first woman ruler (On Delhi’s throne) Razia Sultan
India’s first woman I.P.S. Officer Kiran Bedi
First woman Chief Minister of a state Sucheta Kripalani(U.P)
First woman Union Minister Rajkumari Amrita Kaur
First woman president of INC Annie Besant
First woman Judge of the Suprime Court Meera Sahib Fatima Bibi
First woman to get Ashok Chakra Nirja Mishra
First Indian woman Ambassador at United Nations Vijayalakshmi Pandit
First Indian woman to swim across the English Channel Miss Arati Saha (now Mrs. Arati Gupta)
First Indian woman to get the Nobel Prize Mother Teresa (1979)
First Indian woman to climb the Mt. Everest Bachendri Pal
First Indian woman to become ‘Miss World’ Miss Reita Faria
First Indian woman to get Bharat Ratna Smt. Indira Gandhi
First woman to get Jnanpith Award Ashapurna Devi
First Indian woman to win WTA Title Sania Mirza
First Indian woman Airline Pilot Durga Banerjee
First Indian woman to win a Gold Medal in Asian Games Kamaljeet Sandhu
First Indian woman president of Indian National Congress Sarojini Naidu (1925)
First Indian woman to win the Booker Prize Arundhati Roy
First woman Musician to get ‘Bharat Ratna’ M.S. Subbulakshmi
First Indian woman to go into space Kalpana Chawla
First Indian Woman to Climb the ‘Mt. Everest’ twice Santosh Yadav
First Indian woman to become ‘Miss Universe’ Sushmita Sen

Saturday, January 2, 2010

Miscellaneous Dose

India has the largest population of the blind in the world.

Measles is an infection caused by Rubella virus in children, is extremely contagious and found throughout the world. Vaccination has interestingly reduced the epidemics as compared to earlier times. Measles is typically characterized by fever, cold, cough and a skin rash that starts days before the onset of the disease.

Types of Measles

Rubeola virus which causes “red measles” and may lead to pneumonia or encephalitis.

Rubella virus which causes “German measles” or “three-day measles” is milder in form but can causes birth defects in the baby if the infected mother passes the virus on to the fetus.

Pain killers like acetaminophen and Ibuprofen to ease pain with doctor’s consultation.


Sr. No. Name of Wetlands State/UT Sr. No. Name of Wetlands State/UT
1 Wullar Jammu and Kashmir 35 Rasik Beel W. Bengal
2 Tso Morari Jammu and Kashmir 36 Nawabganj Uttar Pradesh
3 Tisgul Tso Jammu and Kashmir 37 Sandi Uttar Pradesh
4 Renuka Himachal Pradesh 38 Lakh Bahoshi Uttar Pradesh
5 Pong Dam Himachal Pradesh 39 Samaspur Uttar Pradesh
6 Chandratal Himachal Pradesh 40 Sultanpur Haryana
7 Harike Punjab 41 Bhindawas Haryana
8 Ropar Punjab 42 Magadhi Karnataka
9 Kanjli Punjab 43 Gudavi Bird Sanctuary Karnataka
10 Chilka Orissa 44 Bonal Karnataka
11 Kabar Bihar 45 Hidkal and Ghataprabha Karnataka
12 Sambhar Rajasthan 46 Kaliveli Tamilnadu
13 Kolleru Andhra Pradesh 47 Pallikarni Tamilnadu
14 Loktak Manipur 48 Great Rann of Kachh Gujarat
15 Ashtamudi Kerala 49 Thol Bird Sanctuary Gujarat
16 Sasthamkotta Kerala 50 Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary Gujarat
17 Ujni Maharashtra 51 Little Rann of Kachh Gujarat
18 Nalsarovar Gujarat 52 Pariej Gujarat
19 Deepar Beel Assam 53 Wadhwana Gujarat
20 Rudrasagar tripura 54 Nanikakrad Gujarat
21 Hokersar Jammu and Kashmir 55 Barna Madhya Pradesh
22 Mansar-Surinsar Jammu and Kashmir 56 Yashwant Sagar Madhya Pradesh
23 Pangong Tsar J and K (Ladakh) 57 Wetland of Ken River Madhya Pradesh
24 East Calcutta West Bengal 58 National Chambal Sanctuary Madhya Pradesh
25 Sunderbans West Bengal 59 Ghatigaon Madhya Pradesh
26 Point Calimer Tamil Nadu 60 Ratapani Madhya Pradesh
27 Kottuli Kerala 61 Denwa Tawa wetland Madhya Pradesh
28 Palak Mizoram 62 Kanha Tiger Reserve Madhya Pradesh
29 Tamdil Mizoram 63 Pench Tiger Reserve Madhya Pradesh
30 Barilla Bihar 64 Sakhyasagar Madhya Pradesh
31 Kusheshwar Asthan Bihar 65 Dihaila Madhya Pradesh
32 Ban Ganga Jhilmil Tal Uttaranchal 66 Ranjitsagar Jammu and Kashmir
33 Rewalsar Himachal Pradesh 67 Govindgarh Madhya Pradesh
34 Ahiron Beel W. Bengal 68 Udhwa Jharkhand

Miscellaneous Dose

WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2009: Implementing smoke-free environments

The report is the second in a series about the extent of the global tobacco epidemic and measures to stop it. It includes the latest global and country figures on the prevalence of tobacco use and on the measures' impacts.

The report's theme is "smoke-free environments". WHO chose the theme because of the serious harmful effects of second-hand smoke, which include about 600,000 premature deaths per year, numerous crippling illnesses and economic losses in the tens of billions of dollars.


Amelie Mauresmo: Out Lesbian Tennis Player:
Amelie Mauresmo came out at the Australian Open in January 1999 at age 19. After a very successful Australian Open, beating top-ranked Lindsay Davenport, Mauresmo lept into the arms of her then girlfriend and announced that her success had to do with finding love and coming to terms with her sexuality.
Amelie Mauresmo: Star Tennis Player:
Regardless of her sexual orientation, Amelie Mauresmo has proven herself on the tennis court. She reached a #1 ranking in 2004. She's twice been a semi finalist at Wimbledon. She has 17 career titles and has reached the semi or quarter finals at the US Open four times. In 2006 Amelie Mauresmo won Wimbledon.

In 2009, Amelie Mauresmo announced that she is retiring from the sport at age 30.


Human Rights Day

10 December

The promotion and protection of human rights has been a major preoccupation for the United Nations since 1945, when the Organization's founding nations resolved that the horrors of The Second World War should never be allowed to recur.
Respect for human rights and human dignity "is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world", the General Assembly declared three years later in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In 1950, all States and interested organizations were invited by the General Assembly to observe 10 December as Human Rights Day (resolution 423(V)).

Bhopal Gas Tragedy - 1984

Hundreds of people have died from the effects of toxic gases(MIC - Methyl Iso Cyanate which leaked from a chemical factory near the central Indian city of Bhopal. The accident happened in the early hours of December 3rd at the American-owned Union Carbide Pesticide Plant three miles (4.8 km) from Bhopal.


Aryabhatta Satellite

(First Indian Experimental Satellite)
[image] Launch Date : April 19, 1975

Weight : 360 kg

Orbit : 619 x 562 km inclined at 50.7 deg

Lauched by : Soviet Intercosmos rocket.

Objectives : The objectives of this project were to indigenously design and fabricate a space-worthy satellite system and evaluate its perfromance in orbitr.

* to evolve the methodology of conducting a series of complex operations on the satellite in its orbital phasei.

* to set up ground-based receiving, transmitting and tracking systems

and to establish infrastructure for the fabrication of spacecraft systems.

The exercise also provided an opportunity to conduct investigations in the area of spcae sciences. The satellite carried three experiments, one each in X-Ray Astronomy, Solar Physics and Aeronomy.

Friday, January 1, 2010

Information technology (Computer Awareness)

Concepts of Information Processing

People have always needed to count. Earlier they counted with their fingers and probably through scratch markings on trees or bones or on the walls of their caves. People are now able to solve very sophisticated problems, and increasingly so with the aid of computers.

Today we use computers in virtually every environment, even in areas unconnected with number manipulation.

What is Data ?

Data is a collection of facts, figures, statistics which can be processed to produce meaningful information.

What is Processing ?

Processing is the manipulation of the letters, numbers of graphic symbols that constitute data. Data is collected, captured, shifted, rearranged, sorted in sequence, stored, retrieved, formatted and sent to various persons who need the information

Processing includes -
Calculation : addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
Comparison : equal to, greater than, less than, zero, positive, negative
Decision-making : branching to a different path depending on a condition
Logic : the sequence or flow of step to be followed to get the desired result

What is Information ?

Information is processed data. It refers to facts, figures or statistics that have meaning. Although data and infomation are technically different they are often used interchangeably.

What is a Computer ?

A computer is often understood to be a device that computes or calculates numbers. It can be defined as an electronic device with the ability to

1. Accept data supplied by the user
2. Input, store and execute instructions
3. Perform mathemtical and logical operations
4. Output results according to user requirements

Functional Components of a Computer

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The hardware of any computer system can be broadly classified into the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the peripherals.

The heart of the computer is called the CPU (Central Processing Unit) or processor. The CPU performs :
Arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
Logical operations: logical comparisons
Input - output operations : accepting data to be processed, generating the output or results of processing
Internal data movements : moving data between various parts of storage
Data manipulation : accepting data, sorting it, processing it, generating the required information

To perform these various operations the CPU has various components

1. Arithemetic-logic unit (ALU)
2. Control Unit (CU)
3. Memory Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs the actual calculations (add, subtract, divide, multiply) and comparison (greater than, lesser than, equal to, positive, negative, zero).

Control Unit (CU) coordinates the operations of the hardware. It also coordinates the flow and execution of data and instructions that are fed into the memory or main storage via the CPU. The CU functions in a fetch-execute cycle. It fetches the instructions and data from the memory unit, decodes them and sends them to the Arithmetic Logic unit (ALU). The output from the ALU is fetched by the control unit and sent to various parts of the computer.

Memory unit or Main store hold data instructions (that are being interpreted and executed), intermediate results and final results ready for output. The data and instructions are passed from the main store into ALU, or to and from the storage devices under the control of the CU. All instructions or data are stored in the memory unit before being used by the ALU, or the CU. The main store is divided into a number of storage locations. These locations can be accessed by a unique number or address.

Within the CPU are a number of high speed, special purpose memory units called registers. These registers carry out critical functions in the execution of programs. A computer has four basic types of registers:

1. accumulator register (ACC)
2. store operand register (SOR)
3. control register (CR)
4. instruction address register (IAR)

Data Storage Devices


Typically semiconductor elements are used in primary storage sections or main memory. Semiconductor storage elements are small integrated circuits. The storage cell circuits and the support circuitry needed for reading and writing data are packaged on chips of silicon. Chips that use metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology are usually used in the primary storage section. The components are called random access memory (RAM) chips. It is possible to read from and write to any location within RAM by specifying its location or address. New data can be written onto any location, however, while doing so the previous existing data is erased.

RAM chips may be classified as :

1. dynamic
2. static

Dynamic RAM chips - The storage cell circuits contain

a transistor (functions like mechanical on-off light switch) a capacitor used to store an electric charge

Depending on the switching action of the transistor, the capacitor may have no charge (0 bit) or hold a charge.(1 bit). The charge on the capacitor must be periodically refreshed or recharged. I the event of power loss dynamic RAM loses its contents. It is thus called volatile storage.

Static RAM chips - are also volatile storage devices. However, as long as they are supplied with power, they do not require special regenerator circuits to retain the stored data. More transistors and other devices are needed to store a bit in static RAM. These chips are more complicated than dynamic RAMs. Static RAMs are used in specialised applications. Dynamic RAMs are typically used on the primary storage section.


There are certain essential functions that the computer must perform when it is switched on (e.g. establishing connections within the various components of the computer and its peripherals). These low level or machine level functions are carried out through a series of programs or microprograms. These microprograms are stored on chips. These Read Only Chips (ROM) contain data which can be read randomly when required but cannot be written onto.

Data is hardwired onto these chips at the time of manufacture. They cannot be changed by the user.

While both RAM and ROM are storage devices and can be accessed randomly, they differ in that data can be written onto RAM while ROM does not permit the user to write onto it.

ROM retains the data in it even in the absence of power and is thus non-volatile storage.


Short for programmable read-only memory, a memory chip on which data can be written only once. Once a program has been written onto a PROM, it remains there forever. Unlike RAM, PROMs retain their contents when the computer is turned off.

The difference between a PROM and a ROM (read-only memory) is that a PROM is manufactured as blank memory, whereas a ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process. To write data onto a PROM chip, you need a special device called a PROM programmer or PROM burner. The process of programming a PROM is sometimes called burning the PROM.


An EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once it is erased, it can be reprogrammed.


EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM data cannot be selectively rewritten; the entire chip must be erased and rewritten to update its contents.

While Random Access Memory (RAM) loses its data every time you power down your computer, EEPROM does not require a power source to maintain its data. For this reason EEPROM is commonly used by many BIOS chips to save system settings. They are especially useful in process control equipment, in which a real-time response is necessary, but when the software is being is continuously modified.

EEPROM is slower than RAM, but is perfectly fine for applications such as storing saved BIOS settings. EEPROM would not be chosen for applications with dynamic read/write requirements, as in the case of a digital camera, memory stick, or flash card. For these purposes a newer hybrid form of EEPROM is used called flash memory. Flash memory differs from EEPROM in that its data can be selectively rewritten. It can also be erased and rewritten in entire blocks, rather then one byte at a time. This makes it much faster than EEPROM.

Virtual Memory and Cache Memory

Virtual Memory

The size of the memory unit in the CPU is often inadequate, when large programs need to be stored or large amounts of data need to be processed. To overcome this drawback the technique of virtual memory is used. In this technique, which is implemented by hardware of software or both, the memory of the computer appears to have been increased. The program is divided by the software into pages or segments. Only that portion of the program and data that is being processed is kept in primary storage. Part of backing storage is treated as an extension of the main memory and information that is not required is swapped in and out of main store by the operating system. Thus the size of memory becomes equal to the size of primary storage plus the size of secondary storage begin used. Processing time is thus automatically increased.

Cache Memory

In an instruction cycle, the CPU accesses main memory to fetch the instruction. It also accesses memory one or more times to fetch operands or store results. The rate at which the CPU can execute an instruction is therefore, limited by the speed of main memory. To build main memory with the same technology required for CPU registers, so that memory cycle times are comparable to processor cycle times, is very expensive. As a solution a small, fast memory is provided between the CPU and main memory. This is called cache memory.

Types of Computer Files

The smallest unit of data is the data field. The data field consists of a group of related characters treated as a single entity.

A collection of related data items treated as a single unit is called a record.

Records are grouped to form files.

Types of files

The two broad categories of data files used in an information system are:

1. Master files
2. Transaction file

Master files are perpetual files i.e., apart from the time of their creation they are empty. Further, they maintain information that remains constant over a relatively long period of time. When the information changes the master file may be updated. The normal methods of updating are by adding, deleting or editing records in a file.

Transaction files are files in which data prior to the stage of processinig is recorded. The data in transaction records may be collected automatically or may be initially recorded or source documents and later converted to machine readable format.

A transaction file may be a temporary file, to be retained only as long as it is necessary to alter master file information. After the transaction file is processed it is usually re-initialised and further transactions are then recorded in it.

File Organisation

For organizing records efficiently in a computer file:

1. Data must be organised in a logical manner.
2. The file structure must allow quick access to data.
3. Allow for addition or deletion of data according to requirements.

File organisation may be :

1. Serial
2. Direct access
3. Indexed Sequential

In a serial file each data record is placed in turn the next available storage space. The record keys need not be any particular order, and there may be no relationship between the logical position of an item on the file and its physical position on the device. Records can only be accessed in the order in which they occur on the storage medium.

In sequential file organisation, records are held and accessed in a predetermined sequence of keys. Records can be organised in numerical alphabetical or chronological order.

Magnetic tape is a common medium for storing sequential and serial files. Files however may also be stored on disk, which allows convenient storage and faster access than on magnetic tape. Data however, must be retrieved sequentially.

Types of Processing Systems

There are variety of processing options available today.

1. Batch processing systems
2. On-line systems
3. Real-time systems
4. Distributed systems

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