Saturday, January 1, 2011

The total ABCD of Wheat !!!

What Is Durum Wheat?

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is high in protein, gluten, and generally very firm and strong. Kernels of durum wheat are usually large and amber colored. This wheat is most commonly used for making pasta rather than for baking because of its denseness and cooking quality. Pasta made from durum wheat is typically yellow in color because of the wheat's yellow endosperm. The endosperm of wheat is found in the kernel and is usually full of niacin, iron, starch, and protein.

What Are the Benefits of Wheat Germ?

The benefits of wheat germ are numerous, one of them being that this high fiber, high protein part of wheat is one the tastier health foods. It can easily be incorporated into lots of recipes or added to things like cereals or smoothies to include extra nutrition. Unless people are intolerant to wheat, most will find this portion of the wheat kernel easy to digest, though it may be a good idea to start slow in adding it to foods because of its relatively high fiber content. 

What Are Wheat Berries?

 Wheat berries are whole wheat kernels which have had their husks removed. Like other whole grains, they provide a great deal of valuable nutrition including vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and they are often touted as a good inclusion in a healthy diet. Health food stores and some supermarkets carry wheat berries in a variety of packagings, and sometimes finished food products made with wheat berries such as mixed grain salads are also available at markets.

What is a Wheat Allergy?

A wheat allergy is a type of food allergy characterized by adverse reactions to the consumption of wheat. In addition to causing problems when wheat is eaten, wheat allergies may also result in skin reactions in response to contact with wheat, and in respiratory problems after inhaling wheat pollen and wheat dust. Along with soy, dairy, egg, shellfish, tree nut, peanut, and fish allergies, wheat allergies are very widespread around the world, with people from a wide variety of backgrounds experiencing wheat allergies and sensitivity to wheat.

What is the Difference Between Whole Grain and Whole Wheat? 

When it comes to the differences between whole grain products and whole wheat products, there may be some confusion among consumers. While there are many similarities between whole grain products and whole wheat products, there are a few differences that could be very important. Here are some examples.
One of the main differences between whole wheat and whole grain is the process that is used to prepare the grain flour. With whole-wheat flour, the grain has gone through a refining process that has removed some of the nutritional value from the end product. By contrast, whole-grain flour does not go through this refining process, and thus maintains the natural level of nutrients

What is Gluten Flour?

There are several types of gluten flour, most derived from wheat. Gluten is a protein found abundantly in the endosperm of wheat that adds stickiness and sponginess to dough. When people cook with other whole grains, they may not have adequate gluten, and might need to use a bit of pure gluten in order to make breads and other baked goods lighter. There are a few ways to add extra gluten to dough, most of them employing some type of gluten flour to accomplish this. 

What is Kamut® Grain?

Kamut® grain is an ancient grain, and a close relative to durum wheat. It is growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional wheat sources because it is considered nutritionally superior to many other forms of wheat. Research suggests that Kamut® grain may first have been grown in either Egypt or Asia.
When it was first grown in the US, it had no trademark, and was grown mainly as a novelty grain by one farmer in Montana, who got samples of the grain from his son, a WWII airman. The wheat was dubbed King Tut’s grain because of the suggestion of its ancient uses and possible origins. It wasn’t until the 1970s that any farmers thought to grow the wheat in a commercial manner, and there was only one remaining sample of the Montana farmer’s harvest, grown in the 1940s, with which to work.

The anatomy of a grain of wheat

A whole grain is mostly made up of 3 parts. The bran, the germ, and the endosperm. Check out this cool picture.
As you can see from the picture. The endosperm makes up most of the kernal, the bran comes next and the germ makes up the least amount. Manufacturers remove the bran and germ when they make refined bread flour (white flour). Which is not good at all.

The bran is the outside layer of the grain and it is a rich source of many vitamins and minerals like magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, phosphorus, niacin, iron and zinc. Almost all of the fiber within the grain comes from the bran.

The germ is the part of the grain from which a new plant would sprout if you were to plant it. It is a concentrated source of vitamin E, magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, phosphorus, niacin, iron and zinc. The germ also contains some fat and protein.

The endosperm has very small amounts of vitamins, not nearly close to what the bran and germ have.

Buckwheat - is it wheat or what?

Don’t let the word ‘wheat’ in it’s name confuse you. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) looks like a grain and tastes like a grain but isn't a grain at all. Buckwheat is thought of as a cereal, but is actually an herb of the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, a relative of the rhubarb. Buckwheat is also gluten free, which makes it an ideal food for those allergic or sensitive to the gluten in found wheat and other true grains. After being removed from the husk, the triangular seeds are used to make flour.

      Landmark varieties of wheat in India and their yielding ability
Variety Year of release Yield potential (Q/ha)
S 227 1965 33.7
C 306 1965 36.0
Sonalika 1967 45.5
Kalyan Sona 1970 46.0
WL 711 1975 46.8
UP 262 1977 44.0
WH 147 1977 45.1
HD 2189 1979 45.7
HD 2009 1980 45.8
Lok 1 1981 45.4
HUW 234 1984 35.3
HD 2285 1985 42.5
HD 2329 1985 47.1
UP 2338 1990 51.3
WH 542 1992 61.5
Raj 3765 1995 48.9
PBW 343 1995 63.0
HD 2687 1999 62.9
HD 2733 2001 61.5
GW 322 2002 61.0
DBW 17 2006 64.1

  • The three species of wheat namely, Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Triticum durum (macaroni wheat) and Triticum dicoccum (Emmer or Khapli) grown on commercial basis in the Indian subcontinent from pre-historic times are of spring type. 
  • five important varieties namely PV 18, Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Chhoti Lerma and Safed Lerma thereby ushering in the Green Revolution in India.
Released by Total
Bread wheat 199 92 291
Durum wheat 27 19 46
Dicoccum wheat 04 - 04
Triticale 02 01 03
Total 232 112 344
    CVRC –Central variety release committee, SVRC – State variety release committee


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