Wednesday, August 19, 2009

History Notes for Prelims - Later Vedic Age

Later Vedic Age ( 1000-600 BC)
- Later Vedic Age- Also known as PGW (Painted Grey Ware)- Iron Age

- They knew two seas- The Arabian and the Indian Ocean

- Gandak was known as 'Sadanira'

- Position of Women Declined

- Earliest reference to four ashrams or four stages of life- found in 'Jabala Upanishad'

Eight Types of Marriages
1. Brahma: Marriage of a duly dowried girl to a man of the same verna.
2. Daiva: Father gives the daughter to the priest as a part of his fee.
3. Arsa: A Token bride price of a cow and a bull is given as dowry.
4. Prajapati: Marriage- without dowry and bride price.
5. Gandharva: By consent of two parties analogous to modern love marriage.
6. Asura: Marriage by Purchase
7. Rakshsa: Marriage by Capture
8. Paishacha: Seduction of a girl while asleep, mentally deranged or drunk.

Marriage on the Basis of Varna

1. Anuloma: Marriage of a man in his verna or below his verna
2. Pratiloma: Marriage of a girl or woman in lower rank than his own verna.

Polity: The term 'Rastra' First appeared in this period.
Economy: Rice is called 'Vrihi'
- Niksha, Satmana, Krsnala-were used as convenient units of values, but were not coins.

Four Types of Pottery

- Black and Red ware

- Black and Slipped ware

- Painted grey ware

- Red ware


Prajapati ( the creator) comes to occupy supreme position.
- Rudra and Vishnu gained their position

Vedas: First three vedas are called "Trayi"-three fold knowledge.
Rigveda: Recited by Priest 'Hotri'-1028 Hyms (10 Mandals) -Atraya and Kaushitak Brahamns are attached to it.
Samveda: Receited by Priest 'Udgatri'- All the verses except 75 taken from Rigveda- Tandayam and Janmejaya Brahamns are attached to it.
Yajur Veda: Receited by 'Ardhyawahu'- Procedure for performance of sacrifice. Shatpath and Taitriya Brahamns are attached to it.
Athrva Veda: Magical Formulae

Brahamnas: Science of Sacrifice
Aranyaks: Forest Books: Meant for forest dwelling hermits


- Shiksha ( Phonetics)

- Kalpa ( Ritualistic Science)

- Jyotish ( Astronomy)

- Vyakarana ( Grammar)

- Nirukta ( Etymology)

- Chhanda (Metrics)

Nirukta from Yaksha is the oldest Indian Linguistic Text


Shranta Sutra: Large public sacrifices

Guhya Sutra: Birth, Naming, Marriages

Salva Sutra: Measurement

- Aurveda

- Dhaurveda

- Gandharvaveda

- Shilpaveda

Rituals and Sacrifices

Rajasuya: Royal consecration, conferred supreme powers on him
Vajpaye: Race of horces (chariots)
Vritasyoma: to convert a Nishd into Arya

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