Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Notes on General Biology

The green plants and a few types of bacteria which are completely self supporting are called autotrophs.
This mode of nutrition in green plants is achieved mainly by the process of photosynthesis.
All animals including men and non-green plants show heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
Hetrotrophs obtain all their energy requirements mainly from organic substances like carbohydrates and fats.

Energy yielding food:
Carbohydrates and fats
Body building food: Protein and Minerals
Protective food: Vitamins and minerals

One Gram of carbohydrate provides 4.1 Cal.
Manufactured by green plants cia photosynthesis.
Lever converts carbohydrates into glycogen and stores in itself and muscles.
Gycogen is known as animal starch as it is not produced in plants.
Excess carbohydrates is converted to fats.

One gram of fat provides 9.3 calories of energy.
Stored as future foods.

There are made of amino acids which are the only source of nitrogen in the body.
Amino Acids were discovered by William Rash of USA
One gram of protein provides 4.1 calories.
Proteins are raw material for manufacturing of Hormones, enzymes, antibodies etc.

Vitamins and Minerals are called micronutrients while protein, carbohydrates and fats are called macronutrients.
Ca and P form about ¾ of minerals.
Phosphorous: Metabolism
K and Mg: Muscle Contraction
Na and K: Propagation of nerve impulse and for water balance of the body.
Iron: Raw material for RBC
Iodine: thyroid Glands functioning

Mineral Deficiency Diseases
Anemia: Iron deficiency
Rickets : Calcium
Goiter: Deficiency of Iodine.

An average man contains about 45 litre of water which is 70% of body weight.

Funk for the first time used the word Vitamin.
Vitamin A, D, E, K:- Fat soluble
Vitamin B and C:- Water soluble

Vitamin (A) (Retinol) :
Sources: Cod lever oil, egg yolk, yellow vegetables.
Deficiency symptoms: Night Blindness, Xerophthalmia.

Vitamin (B) ( Thiamine):
: Grains, meats, green vegetable.
Deficiency symptoms: Beriberi

Vitamin (C) ( Ascorbic acid):
Sources: Citrus fruits.
Deficiency symptoms: Scurvy (Spongy Gums)

Vitamin (D) ( Calcipherol):
Sources: Animal oil and U-V Rays.
Deficiency symptoms: Rickets, Osteomalacia.

Vitamin (E) ( Tocopherol):
Sources: Unpolished grain, animal and vegetable oil and wheat.
Deficiency symptoms: Muscular Paralysis.

Vitamin (K) ( Kgluation or Coagulation):
Sources: Leafy vegetables.
Deficiency symptoms: Improper coagulation of blood,
Lathyrism: Caused by a neurotoxin, found in Kesri Dal


Plants are divided into three parts:

1. Autotrophic

2. Heterotrophic

3. Insectivorous

Heterotrophic plants are divided into two parts Parasites- Which are totally dependent on living plants and animals and Saprophytes- Depend on dead and rotting organic remains of plants and animals.

Plants Micro Nutrients

1. N2 : Deficiency leads to decrease in angle between the stem and the leaf.

2. P: leads to abnormal color of leaf

3. Ca: Deficiency : Leaves appear abnormal in form or often show scorching or spotting effect.

4. Fe: Acute deficiency leads to scorching of leaf margins and tips. Mild deficiency leads to mottled patterns on leaf.

5. Mn: Deficiency leads to poorly developed root system.

6. Zn: In citrus plants, its deficiency causes mottled leaves.

7. Boron (B): Its deficiency leads to "Heart rot of suger beet and marigold"

Digestive, Teeth, Skeleton and Muscular System

Digestive System

The canal or body parts in which digestion takes place is called Alimentary Canal. It starts from mouth, and passing through Oesophagus (food pipe), stomach and small intestine finally ends into large intestine. Absorption of digested food mainly takes place in small intestines. Undigested and unabsorbed material then passes down the colon and rectum which absorb the excess water and with the help of putrefying bacteria form faeces. Finally the faeces passes out through the anus.

Human Digestive Enzymes

PartsDigestive Juice Enzyme present
Mouth Saliva Ptylin
Stomach Gastric Juice Pepsin+ HCL, Renin, Gastric Lipose
Liver Bile Juice No Enzyme
Pancreas Pancreatic Juice Trypsin, Amylase, Pancreatic
Small Intestine Succus Entericus Peptidases, Invertase, Lipase, Maltase, Lactase

- Digestion changes proteins into amino acids, carbohydrates into Monosaccharide glucose, fructose into galactose and fats into fatty acids and glycerols.

- Digestion of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the act of the enzyme pepsin.

- More than 50% of the energy content of the common diet comes from carbohydrates.

- For a normal person about 70 g of proteins and about 400-500 gms of carbohydrates are recommended.

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